|J - Antiinfectives for Systemic Use|
Antiinfectives are also classified in the following groups:
A01AB Antiinfectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment
A02BD Combinations for eradication of Helicobacter pylori
A07A Intestinal antiinfectives
D01 Antifungals for dermatological use
D06 Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics for dermatological use
D07C Corticosteroids, combinations with antibiotics
D09AA Ointment dressings with antiinfectives
D10AF Antiinfectives for treatment of acne
G01 Gynecological antiinfectives and antiseptics
P Antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents
R05X Other cold preparations
S03 Eye and ear preparations with antiinfectives
Even systemically administered antibacterials and antimycotics may be classified in other groups if their target is exclusively local, e.g. the skin - D01 - Antifungals for dermatological use
Inhaled antiinfectives are classified in J.
The DDDs for the antiinfectives are as a main rule based on the use in infections of moderate severity. However, some antiinfectives are only used in severe infections and their DDDs are assigned accordingly. The DDDs assigned are based on daily treatment. The duration of the treatment periods is not taken into consideration. For antiinfectives given in a high initially starting dose followed by a lower daily "maintenance" dose, the DDDs are based on the "maintenance" dose if the total duration of the treat-ment course is more than one week. If, however, the treatment course is 7 days or less, the DDDs are assigned according to the average daily dose i.e. the total course dose divided by the number of treatment days (e.g azithromycin).
|J01 - Antibacterials for Systemic Use|
This group comprises antibacterials for systemic use, except antimycobacterials, which are classified in J04. The antibacterials are classified according to their mode of action and chemistry.
Combinations of two or more systemic antibacterials from different third levels are classified in J01R, except combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim, which are classified at a separate 4th level, J01EE.
Combinations of antibacterials with other drugs, including local anesthetics or vitamins, are classified at separate 5th levels in the respective antibacterial group by using the 50-series. Common cold preparations containing minimal amounts of antibacterials are classified in R05X.
Inhaled antiinfectives are classified here based on the fact that preparations for inhalation can not be separated from preparations for injection.
|J01D - Other Beta-Lactam Antibacterials|
This group comprises beta-lactam antibacterials, other than penicillins.
The cephalosporins are classified into subgroups according to generations. The reference applied when defining generations is "Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases" by Mandell, Douglas and Benett, sixth edition, 2005. For the definitions used in this textbook, see under J01DB, J01DC, J01DD and J01DE.
The cephalosporins are used in highly variable dosages for different indications, which should be reflected in the assigned DDDs. The indications for use of the cephalosporins (i.e. the severity of the infections) vary rather extensively from one country to another. The assigned DDDs are placed in the upper area of the dose range for moderate to severe infections.
|J01DD - Third-Generation Cephalosporins|
The third generation cephalosporins have a marked activity against gram-negative bacteria. Limited activity against gram-positive cocci, particularly methicillin susceptible S. aureus, might occur.